Trading up and down and the Business Cycle

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Trading companies are businesses working with different kinds of products which are sold for consumerbusiness or government purposes. Trading companies buy a specialized range of products, maintain a stock or a shop, and deliver products to customers. Different kinds of practical conditions make trading up definition and example many kinds of business. Usually two kinds of businesses are defined in trading. Importers or wholesalers maintain a stock and trading up definition and example products to shops or large end customers.

They work in a large geographical area, while their customers, the shops, work in smaller areas and often in just a small neighbourhood. When talking about "trading companies", today we refer mainly to global B2B traders, highly day trading options in ira accounts in one goods category and with a strong logistic organization.

Changes in practical conditions such as faster distributioncomputing and modern marketing have led to changes in their business models. The Winding-up and Restructuring Actan act of the Parliament of Canadauses the following definition". Japan has a special class of "general trading companies" sogo shoshalarge and highly diversified businesses that trade in a wide range of goods and services.

Trading Companies are mostly b2b business services and they trade by other companies invested money and takes commission. From Trading up definition and example, the free encyclopedia. See also [ edit ] Companies portal. Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved December 31, Retrieved from " https: Trade Types of business entity Trading companies. Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.

Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 15 Decemberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trading companies.

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Whether you're looking for an obscure phrase or your basic marketing definition, the AMA Dictionary has it all! Originating from the print version in , we're always adding new terms to keep marketers up to date in the ever-evolving marketing profession. Copyright American Marketing Association. This site content may not be copied, reproduced, or redistributed without the prior written permission of the American Marketing Association or its affiliates.

You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. A procedure by which the number of cases that fall into each of a number of categories are counted. A device that provides the researcher timing control over a visual stimulus; in marketing research, the visual stimulus is often a specific advertisement.

Short-term actions undertaken to achieve implementation of a broader strategy. Individual keywords or phrases for organizing content. Search terms that are very specific, long phrases that include one or more modifiers, such as "cheapest helicopter skiing near Banff BC.

Although long, specific and lesser-used tail terms have low CTRs, they are less competitive and therefore cheaper and often catch buyers at the end of the purchase decision process.

This means that, even with low click-through numbers, tail terms can have good conversion rates. A packet of coupons, refund blanks, or other promotional offers attached to or placed near the product being promoted.

The sale of goods that are turned over to the customer immediately upon closing the sale rather than delivered. The process by which a firm or group of investors acquires control of a corporation via merger or a tender offer. The empirical evidence suggests that both the shareholders of the acquired firm and the bidding firm or group gain in the transaction on average-although the major portion of the gain goes to the target firm's stockholders.

The weight of a container deducted from the gross weight of the package to determine net weight and allowance for freight. The particular segment of a total population on which the retailer focuses its merchandising expertise to satisfy that submarket in order to accomplish its profit objectives.

The process of using income, demographic, and life style characteristics of a market and census information for small areas to identify the most favorable locations. A method of pricing that attempts to cover all costs and achieve a target return. In launching a program, managers often start with an idea of the dollar profit they desire and ask what sales levels will be required to reach it.

Target revenue is the dollar sales required to meet an earnings goal. Target volume is the unit sales quantity required to meet an earnings goal. Narrowly focusing ads and keywords to attract a specific, marketing-profiled searcher and potential customer. You can target to geographic locations geo-targeting , by days of the week or time of day dayparting , or by gender and age demographic targeting.

Targeting features vary by search engine. Newer ad techniques and software focus on behavioral targeting, based on web activity and behaviors that are predictive for potential customers who might be more receptive to particular ads. The system of duties applied to goods and services from foreign countries.

It may be a single rate of duty for each item applicable to all countries or groups of countries or two or more rates applicable to different countries or groups of countries.

This task force or team is established for a new product idea to shepherd it through the various development stages until it is abandoned or approved for commercialization. The task force is composed of personnel on loan, full time or part time from departments such as marketing, research and development, and finance.

Other specialists may join the task force as needed. The task force disbands when the project is abandoned or when commercialization is authorized. The advantage of the task force is that disagreements among functional specialists are more readily resolved when members must work together to achieve goals.

Also, they have direct communications with their own functional departments which have new product assignments. The disadvantage is that there may not be enough competent people to staff the task forces assigned to the many new product projects going on at the same time.

The practice of involving a group of people familiar with the view points and concerns of key decision makers of the customer's organization to sell and service a major account. This is especially prevalent in the sale of complex industrial products, where a particular salesperson cannot be an expert on all aspects of the purchase process. A team is an organizational device bringing together persons with different skills to work toward a goal as defined by the manager appointing the team.

The manager may be a working member of the team or the team may work on its own, selecting its leader from within the team. The manager, in either case, is responsible for monitoring progress of the team as it works to achieve the goal in a specified period of time. Teams often are used to solve problems requiring skills and experience of members from various parts of the company, and whose knowledge exceeds that of the manager who might otherwise have to make the decision alone.

An advertisement torn from a newspaper or magazine, sent to an agency or advertiser as evidence of insertion. The technical skills and equipment available to a country for converting its resources to a standard of living.

The discovery and application of new products, new and improved machines, tools, equipment, and methods of production. The prediction of innovations and advances in a particular technology. Both exploratory research methods and normative research methods are used, the former to project future developments based on the past, and the latter to focus more on planning and planned technological innovation.

The gathering and analysis of information about the direction and timing of possible competitive technological developments. The analysis and evaluation of the potential impact on society of the introduction, modification, or development of a technology, both direct and indirect, intended and unintended. The development of plans and procedures to implement technology transfer. The transfer of a capability to use, modify, or adapt a process, among organizations or countries.

Telephone Disclosure and Dispute Resolution Act 1. An act authorizing the Federal Trade Commission to provide rules to prohibit unfair and deceptive acts and practices in connection with pay-per-call services. A type of error resulting from the fact that most people remember an event as having occurred more recently than in fact is the case.

A telephone conversation between a representative of the research organization, the interviewer, and a respondent or interviewee. Import charges to provide additional protection for local industry and in response to balance of payments deficits. One of two major types of values proposed by Milton Rokeach.

Terminal values represent preferred end states of being or global goals that consumers are trying to achieve in their lives. All the conditions that apply to the importation of goods manufactured in a foreign country such as import duties, import restrictions or quotas, foreign exchange regulations, and preference arrangements. The conditions in a purchase agreement with a vendor that include the type s of discounts available and responsibility for transportation costs.

The conditions in a sales contract with customers including such issues as charges for alterations, delivery, or gift wrapping, or the store's exchange policies. The rights given to the wholesaler or retailer by the manufacturer to sell the manufacturer's product or brand in a defined geographic area that is, at least to some extent, removed, isolated, or protected from other wholesalers and retailers also selling the manufacturer's items.

The development and implementation of a strategy for directing selling activities toward customers in a sales territory aimed at maintaining the lines of communications, improving sales coverage, and minimizing wasted time.

Territory management includes the allocation of sales calls to customers and the planning, routing, and scheduling of the calls. An estimate of the maximum possible sales opportunities that could be realized in a sales territory. The outermost ring of a trade area. It includes customers who only occasionally shop at a store or shopping center.

It is also known as fringe trade area. The trading area selected to test a company's new or modified product, service, or promotion. One form of market testing.

It usually involves actually marketing a new product in one or several cities. The effort is totally representative of what the firm intends to do later upon national marketing or regional market rollout. Various aspects of the marketing plan may be tested e. Output is a mix of learning, especially a sales and profit forecast. In some areas, test marketing is currently being stretched to include scanner market testing, in which the marketing activity is less than total, but the term is best confined to the full-scale activity.

A network where participating sites display text ads in exchange for credits which are converted using a predetermined exchange rate into ads to be displayed on other sites. Textile Fiber Products Identification Act An act that applies to yarns, fabrics, and household articles made from fiber other than wool, and requires that such products bear labels revealing the amount of each fiber they contain and forbids misbranding of such products.

A traditional view of marketing that divides the function into four, interconnected parts: Product, Price, Promotion, Place distribution. A theme is an overall idea of what a web page is focused on. Search engines determine the theme of a web page through analysis in the algorithm of the density of associated words on a page.

Theory of Reasoned Action consumer behavior. A theory developed by Martin Fishbein that assumes consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative behaviors and choose the one that leads to the most desirable consequences.

The theory states that behavior is closely related to behavorial intentions which are in turn the result of attitudes toward performing the behavior and social normative beliefs. A for-hire firm that performs logistics service functions such as warehousing and transportation. The majority of these firms customize their offerings to meet individual customer needs. Tier I Search Engines. The top echelon, or top three, search engines that serve the vast majority of searcher queries. Tier II Search Engines.

Smaller, vertical and specialized engines, including general engines, such as Ask. Tier II Search Engines don? Contextual distribution networks, through which marketers ads appear on pages within the PPC engine's content network, triggered by user web site page views at the moment that contain the advertiser's keyword in its content.

As discussed in Fundamentals coursework, Google's contextual distribution program is called AdSense; Yahoo! When an event or event sponsor buys time from the broadcaster and is responsible for selling the advertising. The quantity of product that the market will absorb at a particular price per period of time.

An approach to developing a sales forecast that relies on the analysis of historical data to develop a prediction for the future. The increased satisfaction created by marketing through making products available at the time consumers want them.