How the Crude Oil Market Works

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Speak the language of the stock market - consult our Stock Market Terms for a glossary of terms and vocabulary that may help you better understand the capital markets. Some of the definitions are TSX-specific and, as a result, may differ from standard general definitions. Advanced Companies Companies listed on TSX Venture Exchange that meet higher asset, market value and shareholder distribution requirements than those classified as venture companies.

Agent A securities firm is classified as an agent when it acts on behalf of its clients as buyer or seller of a security. The agent does not own the security at any time during the transaction. All-or-None Order An order that must be filled completely or the trade will not take place.

American-Style Options Options that can be exercised any time during their lifetime. These are also known as open options. Annual Report A publication, including financial statements and a report on operations, issued by a company to its shareholders at stock option market price of oil oil company's fiscal year-end.

Anonymous Trading Permits Participating Organizations to voluntarily withhold their true broker identities when entering orders stock option market price of oil oil trades on TSX trading systems. Arbitrage The simultaneous purchase of a security on one stock market and the sale of the same security on another stock market at prices which yield a profit.

Ask or Offer The lowest price at which someone is willing to sell the security. When combined stock option market price of oil oil the bid price information, it forms the basis of a stock quote. Ask Size The aggregate size in board lots of the most recent ask to sell a particular security. Assets Everything a company or person owns, including money, securities, equipment and real estate.

Assets include everything that is owed to the company or person. Assets are listed on a company's balance sheet or an individual's net worth statement. Assignment The notification to the seller of an option by the clearing corporation that the buyer of the option is enforcing the terms of the option's contract. At-the-Money When the price of the underlying equity, index or commodity equals the strike price of the option.

Averages and Indices Statistical tools that measure the state of the stock market or the economy, based on the performance of stocks, bonds or other components. Averaging Down Buying more of a security at a price that is lower than the price paid for the initial investment. The aim of averaging down is to reduce the average cost per unit of the investment.

Bb Basis Point One-hundredth of a percentage point. For example, the difference between 5. Best-Efforts Underwriting A type of underwriting where the investment firm acts as an agent.

The firm agrees to use its best efforts to sell the new issue of securities, but does not guarantee the issuing company that the securities to be issued will be sold.

Beta A measurement of the relationship between the price of a stock and the movement of the whole market. Better-Price-Limit Orders An order with a limit price better than the best price on the opposite side of the market. A better-priced buy order has a limit price higher than the best offering.

A better-priced sell order has a limit price lower than the best bid. These are available only at the opening. Bid The highest price a buyer stock option market price of oil oil willing to pay for a stock. When combined with the ask price information, it forms the basis of a stock quote. Bid Size The aggregate size in board lots of the most recent bid to buy a particular security. Black-Scholes Model A mathematical model used to calculate the theoretical price of an option.

Blue Chip Stocks Stocks of leading and nationally known companies that offer a record of continuous dividend payments and other strong investment qualities. Book An electronic record of all pending buy and sell orders for a particular stock option market price of oil oil. Booked Orders Orders that do not trade immediately upon entry.

These orders are also known as outstanding orders. Bought-Deal Underwriting A type of underwriting where the brokerage firm acts as principal. The brokerage firm risks its own capital to purchase all of the securities to be issued. If the price stock option market price of oil oil the securities decreases before the brokerage firm has had a chance to resell the securities to its clients, the firm absorbs the loss. Broker or Brokerage Firm A securities firm or a registered investment advisor affiliated with a firm.

Brokers are the link between investors and the stock market. When acting as a broker for the purchase or sale of listed stock, the investment advisor does not own the securities but acts as an agent for the buyer and seller and charges a commission for these services.

Business Trust A trust that usually generates cash flows from one business or operating company, unlike an investment fund, which generates income from a diversified pool or portfolio. The trust holds debt and equity interests of an operating business. Businesses that exhibit these characteristics may opt for a trust structure over a corporate structure to take advantage of tax efficiency.

Buy-In If a broker fails to deliver securities sold to another stock option market price of oil oil on the settlement date, the receiving broker may buy the securities at the current market price of the stock and charge the delivering broker the cost difference of such a purchase. Bypass Order A type of order that is filled only in a visible "lit" market. A bypass order ignores dark pools stock option market price of oil oil undisplayed orders.

Cc Call Option An option which gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy a fixed amount of a certain stock at a specified price within a specified time. Calls are purchased by investors who expect a price increase. CDS is Canada's national securities depository, clearing and settlement hub. CDS supports Stock option market price of oil oil equity, fixed income and money markets, and is accountable for the safe custody and movement of securities, accurate record keeping, the processing of post-trade transactions, and the collection and distribution of entitlements relating to the securities that have been deposited by participants.

Previously known as Trans Canada Options Inc. Canadian Investor Protection Fund CIPF A fund established to protect customers in the event of insolvency of a member of any of the following sponsoring self-regulatory organizations: Capital To an economist, capital means machinery, factories and inventory required to produce other products.

To investors, capital means their cash plus the financial assets they have invested in securities, their home and other fixed stock option market price of oil oil. Capital Gain or Loss Profit or loss resulting from the sale of certain assets classified under the federal income tax legislation as capital assets. This includes stocks and other investments such as investment property. Capital Gains Distribution A taxable distribution out of taxable gains realized by the issuer.

It is generally paid to security holders of trusts, partnerships, and funds. Like all distributions, it may be paid in securities or cash. The amount, payable date, and record date are established by the issuer. Capital Pool Companies The TSX Venture Exchange Capital Pool Company CPC program offers a unique listing opportunity that brings experienced management teams with proven public financing ability together with development-stage companies in need of capital and management expertise.

Unlike traditional public companies, capital pools list and begin trading without an operating business. The nature of their business is to find and acquire a promising early-stage venture, and their treasuries are funded expressly for the search and due diligence process.

Capital Stock All shares representing ownership of a company, including preferred and common shares. Capital Trust A form of financial trust that differs from other trusts in that it looks more like a fixed income instrument than an equity issue. Capital trusts are generally issued by banks or other financial intermediaries. The business objective of capital trusts is to acquire and hold assets that will generate net income for distribution to unit holders.

The trust's assets may consist of residential mortgages, mortgage co-ownership interests, mortgage-backed securities, other eligible investments, and other qualified debt obligations. Capitalization Change Any change in the issued and outstanding listed securities of an issuer. This change may involve the issuance, repurchase, or cancellation of listed securities or listed securities that are issuable upon conversion or exchange of other securities of an issuer.

Capitalization Effective Date The date that the capitalization change is reflected in the issuer's share register, regardless of when it is reported to the Exchange. Capitalization or Capital Structure Total dollar amount of all money invested in a company, such as debt, preferred and common stock, contributed surplus and retained earnings of a company.

Capped Indices Indices for which there is a maximum relative weight by market capitalization for any one constituent. Any individual constituent of the index can represent no more than a specified percent of the index. Cash A special term attached to an equity order that requires the trade to be settled either the same day or the following business day for cash.

Cash Settlement Settlement of an option contract not by delivery of the underlying shares, but by a cash payment of the difference between the strike or exercise price and the underlying settlement price.

Certificate The physical document that shows ownership of a bond, stock or other security. Changes in Stock List Any modification to the list of tradable issues of an exchange. Clearing Day Any business day on which the clearing stock option market price of oil oil is open to effect trade clearing and settlement. Client Order An order from a retail customer of a Participating Organization. Close Price The price of the last board lot trade executed at the close of trading.

Closed-End Investment Fund An investment trust that issues a fixed number of securities that trade on a stock exchange or in the over-the-counter market. Like other publicly traded securities, the market price of closed-end fund securities fluctuates and is determined by supply and demand in the marketplace.

Closing Transaction An order to close out an existing open futures or options contract. Commission The fee charged by an investment advisor or broker for buying or selling securities as an agent on behalf of a client.

Commodities Products used for commerce that are traded on a separate, authorized commodities exchange. Commodities include agricultural products and natural resources such as timber, oil and metals.

Commodities are the basis for futures contracts traded on these exchanges. Common Shares or Common Stock Securities that represent part ownership in a company and generally carry voting privileges. Common shareholders may be paid dividends, but only after preferred shareholders are paid. Common shareholders are last in line after creditors, debt holders and preferred shareholders to claim any of a company's assets in the event of liquidation.

Under UMIR rule Non-clearing firms may report through the firm that is responsible for their clearing. Continuous Disclosure A company's ongoing obligation to inform the public of significant corporate events, both favourable and unfavourable.

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An energy derivative is a derivative contract based on derived from an underlying energy asset, such as natural gas , crude oil , or electricity. Major players in the energy derivative markets include major trading houses, oil companies, utilities, and financial institutions.

Energy derivatives were criticized after the financial crisis , with critics pointing out that the market artificially inflates the price of oil and other energy providers. The basic building blocks for all derivative contracts are futures and swaps contracts.

A future is a contract to deliver or receive oil in the case of an oil future at a defined point in the future. The price for the futures contract at the date of delivery contract expiry date may be different. In futures markets you always trade with a formal exchange, every participant has the same counterpart. A swap is an agreement whereby a floating price is exchanged for a fixed price over a specified period. It is a financial arrangement that involves no transfer of physical oil; both parties settle their contractual obligations by means of a transfer of cash.

Differences are settled in cash for specific periods usually monthly, but sometimes quarterly, semi-annually or annually. Swaps are also known as "contracts for differences" and as "fixed-for-floating" contracts, terms that summarize the essence of these financial arrangements.

The amount of cash is determined as the difference between the price struck at the initiation of the swap and the settlement of the index. Thus, investors should carefully enter into a swap agreement with other party considering all these parameters. The first energy derivatives covered petroleum products and emerged after the s energy crisis and the fundamental restructuring of the world petroleum market that followed.

This describes the process used by corporations, governments, and financial institutions to reduce their risk exposures to the movement of oil prices. In order to do this, it purchases a swap or a call option linked to the jet fuel market from an institution prepared to make prices in these instruments. Any subsequent rise in the jet price for the period is protected by the derivative transaction.

A cash settlement at the expiry of the contract will fund the financial loss incurred by any rise in the physical jet fuel, allowing the companies to better measure future cash flows. There are limitations to be considered when using energy derivatives to manage risk. A key consideration is that there is a limited range of derivatives available for trading. Continuing from the earlier example, if that company uses a specialized form of jet fuel, for which no derivatives are freely available, they may wish to create an approximate hedge, by buying derivatives based on the price of a similar fuel, or even crude oil.

When these hedges are constructed, there is always the risk of unanticipated movement between the item actually being hedged crude oil , and the source of risk the hedge is intended to minimize the specialized jet fuel. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

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