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Bookman or Bookman Old Style , is a serif typeface. A wide, legible design that is slightly bolder than most body text faces, Bookman has been used for both display typography and for printing at small sizes such as in trade printing, and less commonly for body text. In advertising use it is particularly associated with the graphic design of the s and s, when revivals of it were very popular. Bookman is much bolder than the original Modernised Old Style, to which it was intended to be a bold complement, almost to the point of being a slab serif.
Often described as "modernised old style", it is a redesign of "true old-style" serif faces from the eighteenth century such as Caslon.
Like them, it has sloping top serifs and an avoidance of abrupt contrasts in stroke widths. The lower-case letters are quite wide and the x-height height of lower-case letters is quite large.
Ronaldson Old Style by Alexander Kay was another, as was Phemister's own later Franklin, created after he had emigrated. The direct ancestor of Bookmans were several fonts from around named "Old Style Antique" intended as a bold complement to the original Old Style face.
However, the old style antique fonts also became used for extended body text use. A bold Old Style was needed. This was indeed produced, almost simultaneously in Philadelphia and in Edinburgh [around ] in two distinct designs, both under the name of Old Style Antique. The term 'Antique' probably refers less to historical forms than to the boldness and the stubby serifs of the Egyptians [slab serifs], which were also called antiques. In the s, when such faces as Caslon and Jenson had introduced the notion that all historic romans were bold, their colour and old-style basic forms made the old-style Antiques in the words of De Vinne These designs were then copied and bought up by a series of American type foundries, according to Ovink in a mixture of sizes based on the Philadelphia and Edinburgh designs.
During the period many fonts once created were copied by other foundries, in some cases probably illegally by electrotyping, making the evolution of styles complicated to track. Ovink describes the "Philadelphia" Oldstyle Antique as being different for being slightly less bold and having an 'a' with a rounded top and a 'T' with slight curves on top. ATF did not offer a normal titalic , instead featuring an oblique , or "sloped roman", in which the letters are simply slanted. Serif typefaces which use an oblique are now quite rare, but the style was relatively common for display typefaces in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It was sold with some swash capitals and other letters. Although one critic described its swash letters in as "ridiculous", they would become a popular feature of revivals and derivatives. Bookman was popular in twentieth-century American printing for its solid colour , wide characters and legibility: Griffith of the Mergenthaler Linotype Company developed a revival for Linotype's hot metal typesetting system which was named "Bookman" , and Monotype also offered one.
Many Bookman revivals appeared for phototypesetting systems in the s and s, often including an extensive repertoire of swash characters, meaning that the design is commonly associated with the graphic design of the period.
Mark Simonson , who has designed a revival of the Bookmans of this period, has commented on the most common version used in the s. I have so far been unable to find out who designed and produced it. The best theory I have is that it was a custom font created for an ad campaign in the mid-sixties. Someone who had access to it made copies.
And before long, every typesetting shop had it. Whatever the story is, this version of Bookman was everywhere. I had Sixties Bookman on rub-down type sheets when I was in high school in the early Seventies discovering type. One of the most famous results of this period is the ITC's revival from which many modern versions are descended. Type designer and lawyer Matthew Butterick has written that as a result of its use in this period Bookman 'evokes the Ford administration.
If fonts were clothing, this would be the corduroy suit. Benguiat developed a full family of four weights plus complementary cursive designs: Benguiat also drew a suite of swash and alternate characters for each of the members of the family.
While Bookman's x-height was quite high already, this enlarges the lower-case even more, in the fashion of the period. Fonts for swash and alternate characters were eventually released in OpenType versions of the fonts,  or separately as ITC Bookman Swash. ITC licensed the design to Adobe and Apple , guaranteeing its importance in digital printing by making it one of the core fonts of the PostScript page description language as part of the Adobe PostScript 3 Font Set.
Most digitisations of Bookman are based on the Bookman revivals of the s and s. An exception is Bitstream's digitisation of the Linotype Bookman of the s. Because of ITC Bookman's status as a basic part of the Postscript standard, many modern Bookman revivals and variants were created as a "metrically identical" alternative, or copy it due to its popularity. It was designed by Ong Chong Wah. It is bundled with many Microsoft products, making it one of the most commonly used versions of Bookman.
Though the face's name includes the phrase 'Old Style,' the near-vertical stress of the face places it more in the transitional classification. This version include support of Cyrillic, Greek, and extended Latin characters. It was bundled with Microsoft Office products since version 4. A retail version of the font is also sold. Jukebox Bookman is a revival of the original Bookman family, designed by Jason Walcott and published by Veer.
This family includes 6 fonts, with complementary italic, and 2 swash designs for each of the roman and italic fonts. The italic fonts were redesigned to include optical correction. The family contains a large number of alternate characters, such as swashes and unicase characters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Stanley Morison commented "What in Caslon did not conform to Victorian ideas of typographical rectitude had been cast out.
Even swash letters were not included. Eyes used to sharpness of cut and regularity of letter-width found both in Old Style. Loy who knew him does not credit it to him in his obituary for Phemister and nor does Macmillan credit it directly to him. This article follows Walter Tracy and others in using the term "modernised old style" to avoid confusion, although this phrase was not normal generally in the nineteenth century.
In the absence of evidence for this account Ovink's conclusions are used in this article. Retrieved 29 October An A-Z of type designers. Anatomy of a Typeface. Retrieved 3 May The Minerva Group, Inc.
Retrieved 11 August A Tally of Types. University of California Press. Retrieved 3 February The History and Principles of the Art. Retrieved 1 August Printing Types and How to Use Them. Edinburgh History of the Book in Scotland, Volume 3: Ambition and Industry The History and Technique of Lettering.
Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 10 August The practice of typography: The other kind of secondary type, the related bold face, is a twentieth-century creation. Although the use of bold type for emphasis in text began when display advertising became a feature of the family magazines of the mid-nineteenth century, the bold types themselves were Clarendons, Ionics and Antiques quite unrelated to the old styles and moderns used for the text. Retrieved 16 December It was registered in Britain in Retrieved 20 February Johnston 22 September William and Henry Walters, the Reticent Collectors.
The Practice of Typography: The "higher critics" of typedom do not recognise the Bookman type face, but the practical fellows who keep the printing business alive - we refer particularly to the advertisers and their agents - think a lot of it.
Alexander Phemister Chauncey H. Antique Old Style No.