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This invention is directed to an encoding and modulation technique for communication systems, and more particularly to a duobinary coding and modulation technique for optical transmission systems. In the long haul, high bit rate optical fiber telecommunications, appropriate coding and modulation of the signal for transmission are essential. One of these limitations is the chromatic dispersion, which can be relaxed if modulation bandwidth of the optical signal is reduced.
Duobinary signaling was introduced a few decades ago and its details can be found in, for example, "Introduction To Telecommunication Systems", F. Stremler, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 2nd edition, In binary transmission systems, only two symbols "d" and "n" are used, and more particularly, the bits of information take on two values, logic "1" and logic "0".
One of these two possible signals is transmitted during each T-second signaling interval. Duobinary signaling uses two levels for the non-zero signals, for example, "-1" and "1", resulting in three symbols: Thus, the duobinary signal has one half the transmission bandwidth of the binary signal for encoding the same information. Therefore, this type of signaling can be used to reduce the effect of dispersion, which in turn reduces the high inter-symbol interference at long transmission distances.
There are a number of solutions for constructing a duobinary sequence from a binary one. In general, any duobinary encoding scheme is based on introducing inter-symbol interference ISI , controlled in such a way that it comes only from the immediately preceding symbol. Solving this equation implies providing additional circuitry at the receiver. In addition, decoding errors tend to propagate in the system according to this solution. The XOR-coded binary sequence p k is then used to form a time varying binary signal.
This simplifies the decoding rule, in that the receiver makes each binary decision based only on the current received sample, the ISI still being controlled. The duobinary encoding is followed by an appropriate filtering of the encoded signal. When the input binary "1"s are separated by an odd number of "0"s, the "1"s are encoded as pulses of opposite polarity in the duobinary sequence.
When the input binary "1"s are separated by an even number of "0"s, the "1"s are encoded as pulses of the same polarity in the duobinary sequence.
However, the pre-coding operation necessary according to the above technique results in a somewhat complex structure of the transmitter. Most optical fiber transmitters use an external modulator. In many cases, the transmitter's light source is a semiconductor laser operating in continuous wave CW mode and the external modulator changes the phase of the CW signal at the appropriate bit rate. One such modulator is a Mach-Zehnder M-Z interferometer. A M-Z interferometer comprises a pair of wave-guide channels, or arms, connected between an optical wave-guide splitter and a wave-guide combiner.
The light source is optically coupled to the wave-guide splitter, which serves as a Y-branch splitter or directional coupler. The two light beams from the splitter travel through the wave-guide arms and are reunited by the wave-guide combiner. The recombined light exits the output port of the wave-guide combiner and is then optically coupled to an optical fiber for transmission.
The optical M-Z interferometer operates on the principle of interference between the two optical waves, which have been separated from a common wave at the modulator's input port, at the point of their recombination near the modulator's output port. The interference condition is controlled by the difference between distances travelled by these two waves between the point of separation and the point of recombination.
These distances are controlled by varying the optical indices of the two wave-guides which define the optical paths between separation and recombination.
It is common practice to ensure a particular condition of interference, despite wave-guide variations in modulator manufacture, by combining the varying drive voltages which are used to modulate the condition of interference with a substantially constant bias voltage.
This is often done using a bias tee. In the following is assumed that the modulator has been adequately biased. In M-Z interferometric modulators with a three-electrode configuration, a first and second electrode is each associated with an optical wave-guide arm. These are also called travelling wave electrodes. A third electrode is generally disposed between the arms.
Disadvantageously, the available drive voltage according to this method of modulation effects a phase shift in only the arm associated with the first electrode, thereby limiting the achievable modulation depth for a given voltage in comparison with other methods described herein.
This phase shifting modulation method is known as push-pull. In both above modulation techniques, the two beams arrive at the wave-guide combiner in phase in the absence of a modulating voltage, giving an intensity maximum or an "on" condition.
Conversely, a modulating voltage supplied to one or both arms results in a differential phase change, giving rise to an intensity minimum or "off" condition. As such, the push-pull configuration utilizes the drive voltage more efficiently than the one arm modulation in that, for a given voltage, twice the net phase shift is effected. The reported literature on experiments using the above-identified duobinary pre-coding and modulation techniques can be classified according to the choice of the bias voltage to the external modulator and the intensity levels in the drive signal.
This latter approach simplifies the detection scheme, however, neither technique can always reduce the signal bandwidth by a factor of two. The transmitter includes an encoder comprising an XOR gate with a delayed feedback path for determining each symbol of the duobinary sequence from the current and the previous symbol. The receiver comprises two decision circuits, one having a low threshold to distinguish a "0" level from a "1" level and the other having a high threshold to distinguish a "1" level from a "2" level.
The tests concluded that the dispersion has less effect on the duobinary receiver than on the binary receiver over the distance range tested. However, additional hardware has to be installed at the receiver for decoding the incoming signal, with the resulting penalty in receiver sensitivity.
The optical signal has a central level resulting in maximum extinction, the "0" optical level, and two outer levels resulting in equal intensities, the "1" optical level. The optical signal exhibits characteristics that meet the requirements of existing SDH and SONET interface standards, and therefore a conventional receiver is required for reception.
However, the examples discussed in these publications use a differentially encoded data stream with a bias voltage for the Mach-Zehnder modulator about the point of maximum extinction for nullifying the optical carrier, with the inherent control circuitry. As these references disclose standard duobinary coding techniques which involve pre-coding of the signal and push-pull or single arm modulation methods, they all suffer from the drawbacks described above.
There is a need for a duobinary encoding technique that is simple, does not require additional circuitry at the receiver, uses an easy-to-implement encoding circuit, and provides an encoded signal with a low dc component and reduced transmission bandwidth. There is also a need for a modulation method which may be used efficiently in high speed operation, is voltage efficient and suitable for use with a duobinary coding technique to obtain a reduced bandwidth of the transmitted signal and prolongs the lifespan of the external modulator.
It is an object of this invention to provide a duobinary coding and modulation technique for optical communication systems which reduces the drawbacks inherent with the prior art techniques.
It is another object of the invention to provide a duobinary coding circuit that is used to drive an external modulator, no pre-coding circuit being necessary at the transmitter site, and no additional decoding circuitry being necessary at the receiver site. The coding circuit according to this invention also behaves as a band limiting element. It is another object of the invention to provide a duobinary coding technique that is simple, provides a modulation signal with substantially no dc component and provides a bandwidth reduction factor of substantially two for a given symbol rate.
Still another object of this invention is to provide an optical modulation technique based on a single ended push-pull driven modulator or a differentially driven modulator with virtual ground. The invention also provides a modulation technique using a Mach-Zehnder M-Z interferometer for modulating a continuous wave CW optical carrier with a duobinary encoded differential driving signal, the M-Z interferometer having a first and a second travelling wave-guide, a splitter between an input port and the first and second travelling wave-guides, a combiner between the first and second travelling wave-guides and an output port, a first and a second travelling wave electrode, each associated with the respective first and second travelling wave-guide, the M-Z interferometer further comprises: Advantageously, the technique according to this invention converts a binary input to a duobinary output regardless of the incoming data rate.
Hence, a factor of two bandwidth reduction is obtained, which is not the case with the standard duobinary scheme. The coded signal generated according to the invention also has a smaller dc component.
The smaller dc component results in better suppression of the carrier frequency. This, in turn, shifts the onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold to higher launch powers. Hence, a higher optical power may be launched onto the fibers. In addition, the modulation technique using a duobinary encoded differential driving signal according to the invention allows for a reduced amplitude required of individual drivers to approximately half that required for the conventional push-pull drive configurations.
The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following more particular description of the preferred embodiments, as illustrated in the appended drawings, where:. As a result, for any odd number of "1"s in a row, modulation bandwidth of the drive signal is reduced by a factor of two. As well, the E-field has no component at the carrier frequency. However, this is not the case with an input sequence having an even number of successive "1"s, as shown in the examples of Table 1.
In the above examples, the bandwidth of the driving signal is identical to the bandwidth of the binary input signal, and the dc component is the same as that of the binary input signal.
Therefore, this scheme does not eliminate the dc component in general, rather, it reduces the dc for certain patterns. The duobinary encoding according to the present invention affects only non-zero input bits.
An input bit "0" results in a "0" output bit. The input bits "1" are replaced by output bits "1"s or "-1"s. This is done in such a way that the only allowed transitions at the output are from "1", to any number of "0"s and to "-1", or vice versa. In this way, the number of "1"s in the driving signal is substantially equal to the number of "-1"s.
Hence, a maximum reduction of the dc component is obtained. A coding circuit 1 receives the binary input sequence x 0,1 at the input 3 and provides the duobinary output sequence y 0,1,-1 at output 5. The output sequence y 0,1,-1 is input to driver 7 which provides the driving signal 12 on electrode 19 of modulator 9. Modulator 9 illustrated in the embodiment of FIG. A bias voltage V Bias is applied between travelling wave electrodes 15 and A laser 11 provides a CW optical carrier signal 14 to the input port 8 of the optical wave-guide splitter of modulator 9 in the known manner.
A modulated optical signal 16 is obtained at the output port 10 of the wave-guide combiner of the modulator and coupled into optical fiber 13 for transmission.
Coding circuit 1 comprises a D-type flip-flop 21 connected with the inverting output Q to the D input for obtaining a delay with a period T, which is needed for simultaneously obtaining the bits x k and x k The binary stream x 0,1 is applied to the clock input of the flip-flop Whenever a logic "1" x k bit is followed by a logic "0", flip-flop 21 changes its state. This is shown in rows 2 and 3 of Tables 2 and 3 below. This is shown in row 4 of Tables 2 and 3 below.
This is illustrated in row 5 of Tables 1 and 2 below. The output of both AND gates 23 and 25 is applied to a summation circuit 27 to provide the coded stream y 0,1,-1 at output 5. The summation circuit 27 effects an algebraic summation of the signals, rather than the logic "AND" effected by gates 23 and Another advantageous implementation of the optical modulation operation according to this invention is based on a M-Z modulator configuration that is driven differentially, as shown in FIG.
In this case, the driving signal is a differential signal provided on lines 12 and 12', respectively, these being generated with a differential pair of drivers 19 from duobinary sequence y 1,0, Travelling wave electrodes 15, 17 receive each on a first end, close to input 8, the active electrically modulated signal from the respective line 12 or 12'. A first matching impedance Z 1 connects the second end of electrode 15, close to the output port 10 of the modulator to ground, while a second matching impedance Z 2 connects the second end of electrode 17 to ground.
In this way, the impedance of each travelling wave electrode is substantially twice the impedance to ground of the individual active lines, creating a virtual ground line.
This virtual ground line is not electrically connected to a physical ground, but is located somewhere between the travelling wave drive electrode, substantially parallel to the direction of propagation of the drive RF wave. The effect of using this drive implementation is to reduce the drive amplitude required of individual drive circuits to approximately half that required for the push-pull drive configuration described earlier.